Bean Counting and Logistics Costs Don't Add Up!
Supply chain management (SCM) is one of the key drivers in today's business world with offshore sourcing, foreign competition and global markets. The responsiveness required to keep the inbound supply chain flowing with materials and products and to keep store shelves filled is demanding. SCM requires reducing costs, increasing inventory velocity and compressing cycle time; and some say these three may not be compatible or consistent.
Doing all this "and doing it well" takes creativity and management skill. However there is a factor that limits the design, development and implementation of such supply chains. That factor is accounting (ie; bean counting), and how it recognizes, and treats, logistics costs.
Generally accepted accounting principles create the foundation so that every company reports its financial data the same way. Or so they say...
These accounting standards have a long history. They date back to Henry Ford and the Model A. Companies then may have been vertically integrated with a primary focus on domestic sales, sourcing and production. This business model has become nearly extinct, especially for large companies, that source internationally. As a result, accounting rules have not kept up with present business operations and practices.
Some differences with supply chain management and accounting are:
Process versus Transactions
SCM flows across the organization. As a process, it flows across many of the organization's departments and boundaries. Accounting is transaction-oriented, with its focus on identifying and summarizing vertical sales and make-or-buy activities.
Supply chain management is horizontal and crosses departments and organizational boundaries. Transactions are vertical and are consistent with organization silos.
SCM extends into suppliers and logistics service providers to gain inventory velocity and to reduce cycle time. Accounting stays within the company facilities and boundaries and looks inward.
Outward or Inward
Supply chain management looks both inward and outward to deal with suppliers, transport firms, warehouses and other logistics service providers. Collaboration is important when managing the complex, global supply chain. Accounting is traditional and focuses within the corporate boundaries.
Continuous versus Discrete
SCM is ongoing. Product is always flowing. Accounting looks at different summaries which create supply chain disconnects. Logistics costs are organized individually, not recognized at all, or recognized in different places.
Inventory appears on the balance sheet and is presented annually.
Supply chain management is constantly changing--as suppliers, customers, plants and warehouses, shipment sizes and order mix and as store locations change. This contrasts with accounting which has the historical perspective of what has already happened.
These differences make it difficult to develop meaningful performance metrics for supply chain management that are recognized in the board room and that are aligned with the company strategic plan. Financial metrics, while commonly used, have limited application to supply chain management performance improvement.
For example, inventory velocity, inventory turns and inventory yield maximization (all time related) are important to achieving the best returns on inventory and on the capital that it represents.
Today's business world is focused on the customer. The perfect customer order is a key performance metric for gaining and maintaining customers and for achieving deeper customer penetration. These are not standard, traditional financial measures!
Similarly developing unique supply chain programs that differentiate by A versus B versus C inventory, or by customer, or by product family segment, or any other delineator are not supported by accounting!
These limitations also impact the success of lean program development and lean success. Waste, non-value added, actions do not conform to traditional accounting. As a result, time and inventory waste identification run counter to how accounting sees these manufacturing and supply chain processes and sub-processes.
Incremental and continuous improvement with its flow and pull are part of adapting to the new business model of faster and better...even less expensive. Unfortunately cost accounting practices are enablers of the old ways, not the new ways of business and business models.
Accounting professionals have recognized the limitations of accounting in today's business. Activity based costing is one way they try to adjust to the new world. But ABC is not incorporated into income statements and balance sheets, which still reflect an antiquated way of summarizing business financials and performance. Frankly, most of the old boys on the board wouldn't know how to read or interpret this new fiscal game plan anyway!
At some point, Accounting must step up and stop band-aiding a bad system. It must redefine, reinvent, and reinvigorate itself...so it can be part of the global business world.